Research Method in Management
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Research is a thorough, orderly, organized, efficient and logical investigation of an area of knowledge or of a problem. In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. Main components of a research are:
Science is knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experiment. Research begins with a broad question that needs an answer.
Theory (Hypothesis) Researcher creates an assumption to be proved or disproved with the help of data.
Researchers design an experiment with steps to test and evaluate the theory (hypothesis) and generate analyzable data. Experiments have controls and a large enough sample group to provide statistically valid results.
Observing and recording the results of the experiment generated raw data to prove or disprove the theory.
Statistical analysis on the data and organizing it so that it is understandable generates answers to the initial question. Data may show trends that allow for the broadening of the research.
Research following the scientific method will either prove or disprove the theory (hypothesis). What happened and why it needs to be explained by the researcher is concluded. Even when a theory (hypothesis) is disproved, valuable data collected in the research may lead to further research. The results are usually published and shared.
Sources of research problem:
Sources of research problem are:
Own teaching experiences
Process of research:
Research process includes the following steps:
Formulation of research problem
Formulation of a research problem:
The first step in research process is exploration of the area of interest. This may be done by review of literature and taking expert opinion. An analysis of the situation leads to an understanding of the entire scenario and researcher can identify the research problem
Importance of literature review for a researcher:
A literature review is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such as a thesis, a literature review usually precedes a research proposal and results section. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as future research that may be needed in the area.
A hypothesis is a logical supposition, a reasonable guess. It provides a tentative explanation for a phenomenon under investigation." A hypothesis is important because it guides the researcher. An investigator may refer to the hypothesis to direct his or her thought process toward the solution of the research problem. The hypothesis helps an investigator to collect the right kinds of data needed for the investigation. Hypotheses are also important because they help an investigator to locate information needed to resolve the research problem .As a hypothesis is continually supported over time by a growing body of data, it becomes a theory. A theory is describes as "an organized body of concepts and principles intended to explain a particular phenomenon. Both are supported or rejected on the basis of testing by various investigators under different conditions. An example of a well known theory is Einstein's theory of relativity.
Types of research design:
The research designs are of the following types:
Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and sometimes on qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or
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Tag der Veröffentlichung: 07.07.2013
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