The Introduction to Zen is a difficult book to ingest. The substance of the afforisms and the essays is an extraction from traditional Zen Books. They tend though to add a modern level of interpretation and expression that seem difficult at the firt reading. The meaning and scope of the afforisms and koans is to help a Zen beginner mind to see a Zen "reality" that is beyong thinking. Mind becomes Zen and Zen becomes Mind. No Mind is No Zen.